In our H2 Physics Tuition lessons, we distinguish from the start the difference between the H2 Physics syllabus and the H1 Physics coverage.

This allows our H2 students to know which Physics concepts, theories, principles and topics are only for H2 Physics syllabus (Syllabus Code: 9646). Thereafter, they do get the idea that these H2-Only topics are very much going to be tested in the actual A-Level Physics examinations.

(This is pretty obvious to our Physics tutors, because if the H2 Physics paper is set very similar to the h1 Physics paper, then what’s the point of having split syllabus?)

(Please see the page on H1 Physics. As you read each section, you will see the distinction very much quicker between the 2 syllabi.)**H2 Physics Tuition Singapore – H2 Physics Syllabus**

There are a total of 6 sections:

* Measurement,** Newtonian Mechanics,** Thermal Physics,** Waves,** Electricity & Magnetism, and** Modern Physics.*

(Note: H2 Physics notes will be given to students in lessons each time we embark on a new topic.)**SECTION I: MEASUREMENT**

This section is exactly the same as the section on H1 Physics: Measurement, under H1 Physics tuition programme summary.

Much of it have been covered in O-Levels, so this part of JC Physics component is largely a revision and serves as a bridging topic.

Like many cnetres of Physics tuition in Singapore, we also spend relatively little time on this topic.**SECTION II: NEWTONIAN MECHANICS**

For this section, the topics of Kinematics and Dynamics, as well as Work, Energy & Power are exactly the same for both H2 Physics and H1 Physics.

The “Forces” topic under Newtonian Mechanics is identical too for H2 Physics students.

However, additional concepts are required, namely, to be able to:

show an understanding of the origin of the upthrust acting on a body in a fluid.

state that an upthrust is provided by the fluid displaced by a submerged or floating object.

calculate the upthrust in terms of the weight of the displaced fluid.

recall and apply the principle that, for an object floating in equilibrium, the upthrust is equal to the weight of the object to new situations or to solve related problems.

Therefore, in our H2 Physics tuition classes, the concept of upthrust acting on a body in a fluid is very explicitly taught, so that our H2 students understand and are able to apply to Physics problems.

In fact, we have been proven correctly, as for the past 4 years, A-Level Physics question papers for H2 syllabus have been on upthrust concepts!

Furthermore, the H2 Physics Syllabus has THREE additional topics, under Newtonian Mechanics, and respectively, they are the topics of Motion In A Circle, Gravitational Field and Oscillations.

Topic: Motion In A Circle

In a circle, forces and motion can be examined in a special way, as it relates to everyday lives of humans. In addition, the consideration of a circle in a horizontal plane versus a vertical plane has vast yet distinct applications in machinery and other parts of our lives.

Thus, concepts such as centripetal acceleration, centripetal force and angular velocity must be mastered in order to explain and apply to questions in exams.

In this special topic, the use of Physics exam papers is very important. More on this illustration in our H2 Physics tutorials.

In this special topic, H2 Physics students should be able to:

express angular displacement in radians.

understand and use the concept of angular velocity to solve problems.

recall and use v = rω to solve problems.

describe qualitatively motion in a curved path due to a perpendicular force, and understand the centripetal acceleration in the case of uniform motion in a circle.

recall and use centripetal acceleration a = rω2, a = v2/r to solve problems.

recall and use centripetal force F = mrω2, F = mv2/r to solve problems.

Topic: Gravitational Field

In this H2 Physics topic, students need to view gravitational field as yet another field of force in the realm of Physics.

This topic is considered to be introductory, and hence only standard formulae are given only, with no need for derivation. In other words, this topic has found to be very easy by most students.

Formulae involving forces between point masses, field of a point mass or near to the surface of the Earth and also that of the gravitational potential are introduced and easily applied to problems.

Students then must be able to:

show an understanding of the concept of a gravitational field as an example of field of force and define gravitational field strength as force per unit mass.

recall and use Newton’s law of gravitation in the formF =Gm1m2 /r2

derive, from Newton’s law of gravitation and the definition of gravitational field strength, the equation g = GM /r2 for the gravitational field strength of a point mass.

recall and apply the equation = GM /r2 for the gravitational field strength of a point mass to new situations or to solve related problems

show an appreciation that on the surface of the Earth g is approximately constant and equal to the acceleration of free fall.

define potential at a point as the work done in bringing unit mass from infinity to the point.

solve problems using the equation φ = − GM / r for the potential in the field of a point mass.

recognise the analogy between certain qualitative and quantitative aspects of gravitational and electric fields.

analyse circular orbits in inverse square law fields by relating the gravitational force to the centripetal acceleration it causes.

show an understanding of geostationary orbits and their application.

Topic: Oscillations

This topic has seemed to be interesting to many H2 students. Forces, energy and resonance found in our daily lives are neatly demonstrated in these concepts of simple harmonic motion (SHM)

Briefly, H2 Physics must be able to:

describe simple examples of free oscillations.

investigate the motion of an oscillator using experimental and graphical methods.

understand and use the terms amplitude, period, frequency, angular frequency and phase difference and express the period in terms of both frequency and angular frequency.

recognise and use the equation a = -ω2x as the defining equation of simple harmonic motion (SHM).

recall and use x = x0 sinω t as a solution to the equation a = -ω2x.

recognise and use physics pic 1

describe, with graphical illustrations, the changes in displacement, velocity and acceleration during SHM.

describe the interchange between kinetic and potential energy during SHM.

describe practical examples of damped oscillations with particular reference to the effects of the degree of damping and the importance of critical damping in cases such as a car suspension system.

describe practical examples of forced oscillations and resonance.

describe graphically how the amplitude of a forced oscillation changes with frequency near to the natural frequency of the system, and understand qualitatively the factors which determine the frequency response and sharpness of the resonance.

show an appreciation that there are some circumstances in which resonance is useful and other circumstances in which resonance should be avoided.

Viewing this difference of topics such as Forces, Circle, Gravity and SHM, our H2 Physics tuition lessons conducted in our A-Level tuition centre in Singapore doubly emphasised on this set of topics, and students are usually well rewarded during exams.**SECTION III: THERMAL PHYSICS**

This topic is also solely for H2 Physics students in Singapore. Key content knowledge include the concepts of internal energy, specific heat capacity and latent heat of vaporization & fusion, the first law of thermodynamics, and also the kinetic energy of a molecule.

Many students find this topic tough as it requires that H2 Physics students are able to:

show an understanding that internal energy is determined by the state of the system and that it can be expressed as the sum of a random distribution of kinetic and potential energies associated with the molecules of a system.

relate a rise in temperature of a body to an increase in its internal energy.

show an understanding that regions of equal temperature are in thermal equilibrium.

show an understanding that there is an absolute scale of temperature which does not depend on the property of any particular substance, i.e. the thermodynamic scale.

apply the concept that, on the thermodynamic (Kelvin) scale, absolute zero is the temperature at which all substances have a minimum internal energy.

convert temperatures measured in Kelvin to degrees Celsius: T / K = T / °C + 273.15.

define and use the concept of specific heat capacity, and identify the main principles of its determination by electrical methods.

define and use the concept of specific latent heat, and identify the main principles of its determination by electrical methods.

explain using a simple kinetic model for matter why

melting and boiling take place without a change in temperature,

the specific latent heat of vaporisation is higher than specific latent heat of fusion for the same substance,

cooling effect accompanies evaporation.

recall and use the first law of thermodynamics expressed in terms of the change in internal energy, the heating of the system and the work done on the system.

recall and use the ideal gas equation pV = nRT, where n is the amount of gas in moles.

show an understanding of the significance of the Avogadro constant as the number of atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon-12.

use molar quantities where one mole of any substance is the amount containing a number of particles equal to the Avogadro constant.

recall and apply the relationship that the mean kinetic energy of a molecule of an ideal gas is proportional to the thermodynamic temperature to new situations or to solve related problems.

Most of the time, our H2 Physics tutors immediately uses the past year A-Level Physics questions, as well as local JC’s prelim papers and Physics worksheets. This ensures that in the shortest time possible, our tuition students can be up to par for this challenging topic.

**SECTION IV: WAVES**

This section is exactly the same as the section on H1 Physics: Waves.

**SECTION V: ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM**

In this section, besides the identical 3 topics of Current of Electricity, D.C. Circuits and Electromagnetism in the H1 Physics syllabus, there are 3 additional topics of Electric Fields, Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents.

(See the H1 Physics on Electricity & Magnetism here.)

Topic: Electric Fields

This fundamental concept tests students to appreciate electric field as a field of force, just many of the previous topics of force. Hence the treatment of it as a force between point charges, electric field of a point charge, and electric potential are key test content areas.

Other include:

show an understanding of the concept of an electric field as an example of a field of force and define electric field strength as force per unit positive charge.

represent an electric field by means of field lines.

recall and use Coulomb’s law in the form F = Q1Q2 /4πε0r2 for the force between two point charges in free space or air.

recall and use E = Q/4πε0r2 for the field strength of a point charge in free space or air.

calculate the field strength of the uniform field between charged parallel plates in terms of potential difference and separation.

calculate the forces on charges in uniform electric fields.

describe the effect of a uniform electric field on the motion of charged particles.

define potential at a point in terms of the work done in bringing unit positive charge from infinity to the point.

state that the field strength of the field at a point is numerically equal to the potential gradient at that point.

use the equation V = Q/4πε0r for the potential in the field of a point charge.

recognise the analogy between certain qualitative and quantitative aspects of electric field and gravitational fields.

Topic: Electromagnetic Induction

Magnetic flux

Laws of electromagnetic induction

Candidates should be able to:

define magnetic flux and the weber.

recall and solve problems using Φ = BA.

define magnetic flux linkage.

infer from appropriate experiments on electromagnetic induction:

that a changing magnetic flux can induce an e.m.f. in a circuit,

that the direction of the induced e.m.f. opposes the change producing it,

the factors affecting the magnitude of the induced e.m.f.

recall and solve problems using Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction and Lenz’s law

explain simple applications of electromagnetic induction.

Topic: Alternating Currents

Characteristics of alternating currents

The transformer

Rectification with a diode

show an understanding and use the terms period, frequency, peak value and root-meansquare value as applied to an alternating current or voltage.

deduce that the mean power in a resistive load is half the maximum power for a sinusoidal alternating current.

represent an alternating current or an alternating voltage by an equation of the form x = x0sinωt.

distinguish between r.m.s. and peak values and recall and solve problems using the relationship Irms = I0 / √2 for the sinusoidal case.

show an understanding of the principle of operation of a simple iron-cored transformer and recall and solve problems using Ns /Np = Vs /Vp = Ip / Is for an ideal transformer.

explain the use of a single diode for the half-wave rectification of an alternating current.

More Physics and tips for these 2 topics in our H2 Physics tuition. Simply put, this topic can determine whether you can get your distinction for Physics or otherwise. (“,)**SECTION VI: MODERN PHYSICS**

Besides the identical topic of Quantum Physics, as in H1 Physics syllabus, this section also includes 2 more topics of Lasers & Semiconductors and Nuclear Physics.

Topic: Lasers and Semiconductors

Basic principles of lasers

Energy bands, conductors and insulators

Semiconductors

Depletion region of a p-n junction

Some JC students are told by their tutors that they can afford to skip this topic if they wish so, so as to save time and effort on revision.

Given our pool of ex-students who secure Physics distinctions, we recommend that you be prepared for this topic instead.

To cut to the chase, the questions set on this topic can be relatively easy, as compared to other topics and sections.

Briefly, the learning outcomes for students are to:

recall and use the terms spontaneous emission, stimulated emission and population inversion in related situations.

explain the action of a laser in terms of population inversion and stimulated emission. (Details of the structure and operation of a laser are not required.)

describe the formation of energy bands in a solid.

distinguish between conduction band and valence band.

use band theory to account for the electrical properties of metals, insulators and intrinsic semiconductors, with reference to conduction electrons and holes.

analyse qualitatively how n- and p-type doping change the conduction properties of semiconductors.

discuss qualitatively the origin of the depletion region at a p-n junction and use this to explain how a p-n junction can act as a rectifier.

Finally

Nuclear Physics

Content

The nucleus

Isotopes

Mass defect and nuclear binding energy

Nuclear processes

Radioactive decay

Biological effect of radiation

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:

infer from the results of the α-particle scattering experiment the existence and small size of the nucleus.

distinguish between nucleon number (mass number) and proton number (atomic number).

show an understanding that an element can exist in various isotopic forms each with a different number of neutrons.

use the usual notation for the representation of nuclides and represent simple nuclear reactions by nuclear equations of the form

physics pic 2

show an understanding of the concept of mass defect.

recall and apply the equivalence relationship between energy and mass as represented by E = mc2 in problem solving.

show an understanding of the concept of binding energy and its relation to mass defect.

sketch the variation of binding energy per nucleon with nucleon number.

explain the relevance of binding energy per nucleon to nuclear fusion and to nuclear fission.

state and apply to problem solving the concept that nucleon number, proton number, energy and mass are all conserved in nuclear processes.

show an understanding of the spontaneous and random nature of nuclear decay.

infer the random nature of radioactive decay from the fluctuations in count rate.

show an understanding of the origin and significance of background radiation.

show an understanding of the nature of α, β and γ radiations.

define the terms activity and decay constant and recall and solve problems using A = λN.

infer and sketch the exponential nature of radioactive decay and solve problems using the relationship x = x0 exp(–λt) where x could represent activity, number of undecayed particles and received count rate.

define half-life.

solve problems using the relationphysics pic 3

discuss qualitatively the effects, both direct and indirect, of ionising radiation on living tissues and cells.

The tackling of this Nuclear Physics is somewhat limited, yet straight forward. If you want a tip here, do attempt the prelim paper of the top 5 JCs they seem to set good questions for this topic.**H2 Physics Tuition – A-Level Physics Exam Paper**

All school candidates are required to enter for Physics Exam Papers 1, 2, 3 and 4.

Paper Type of Paper Duration Weighting (%) Marks

1 MCQs 1hr 15min 20 40

2 Structured Questions Planning 1 hr 45 min 25

3 Longer Structured Questions 2 hr 35

4 SPA 15 40

5 Practical Exam 1 hr 50 min 15 36

Paper 1 (1 h 15 min, 40 marks) There are 40 multiple-choice questions (MCQs). All questions will be of the direct choice type with 4 options

In our H2 Physics tuition lessons, we predict the combination of MCQs as a whole.

Taking into account all the topics, the probable number of questions per topic, the number of questions involving calculations, the number of questions involving diagrams and graphs, etc, we can pre-empt with sufficient accuracy of the actual Paper 1.

This ability to pre-empt the MCQs encourage our Physics students to do well. In fact, we always require them to approach this paper, with the expectation of obtaining 38 out of 40 questions being correct

Paper 2 (1 h 45 min, 72 marks)

This paper will consist of a variable number of structured questions plus one or two data-based questions, and a question on Planning. All questions are compulsory and answers will be written in spaces provided on the Question Paper.

The data-based question(s) will constitute 15–20 marks whilst the Planning question constitutes 12 marks for this paper. The Planning Question will assess appropriate aspects of objectives C1 to C5 and may require candidates to integrate knowledge and understanding from different areas of the syllabus.

Paper 3 (2 h, 80 marks)

This paper will consist of:

Section A worth 40 marks consisting of a variable number of structured questions, all compulsory. These include questions which require candidates to integrate knowledge and understanding from different areas of the syllabus;

Section B worth 40 marks consisting of a choice of two from three 20-mark questions.

All answers will be written in spaces provided on the Question Paper.

Paper 4 (40 marks)

The School-Based Science Practical Assessment (SPA) will take place over an appropriate period that the candidates are offering the subject. There are two compulsory assessments which will assess appropriate aspects of objectives C1 to C5 in the following skill areas:

Manipulation, measurement and observation (MMO)

Presentation of data and observations (PDO)

Analysis, conclusions and evaluation (ACE)

Each assessment assesses these three skill areas MMO, PDO and ACE, which may not be necessarily equally weighted, to a total of 20 marks. The range of marks for the three skill areas are as follows: MMO, 4–8 marks; PDO, 4–8; ACE, 8–10 marks.

The assessment of PDO and ACE may also include questions on data-analysis which do not require practical equipment and apparatus. Candidates will not be permitted to refer to books and laboratory notebooks during the assessment.

Refer to the SPA Handbook for more detailed information on the conduct of SPA.

Paper 5 (1 h 50 min, 36 marks)

For private candidates, a timetabled practical paper will assess appropriate aspects of objectives C1 to C5 in the following skill areas:

Manipulation, measurement and observation (MMO)

Presentation of data and observations (PDO)

Analysis, conclusions and evaluation (ACE)

Each of these skill areas will be approximately equally weighted to a total of 36 marks. This paper may include data handling/interpretation questions that do not require apparatus, in order to test the skill areas of PDO and ACE.

Marks allocated to assessment objectives

The Assessment Objectives:

A Knowledge with understanding (Lower Order Thinking Skills) Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding in relation to:

scientific phenomena, facts, laws, definitions, concepts, theories;

scientific vocabulary, terminology, conventions (including symbols, quantities and units);

scientific instruments and apparatus, including techniques of operation and aspects of safety;

scientific quantities and their determination;

scientific and technological applications with their social, economic and environmental implications.

The syllabus content defines the factual knowledge that Physics students may be required to recall and explain. Questions testing these objectives will often begin with one of the following words: define, state, describe or explain. (See the glossary of terms)

B Handling, applying and evaluating information (Higher Order Thinking Skills) Candidates should be able – in words or by using written, symbolic, graphical and numerical forms of presentation – to:

locate, select, organise and present information from a variety of sources;

translate information from one form to another;

manipulate numerical and other data;

use information to identify patterns, report trends, draw inferences and report conclusions;

present reasoned explanations for phenomena, patterns and relationships;

make predictions and put forward hypotheses;

apply knowledge, including principles, to novel situations;

evaluate information and hypotheses;

demonstrate an awareness of the limitations of physical theories and models.

C Experimental skills and investigations (SPA & Practical Assessment skills)

Candidates should be able to:

follow a detailed set or sequence of instructions and use techniques, apparatus and materials safely and effectively;

make observations and measurements with due regard for precision and accuracy;

interpret and evaluate observations and experimental data;

identify a problem, design and plan investigations, evaluate methods and techniques, and suggest possible improvement;

record observations, measurements, methods and techniques with due regard for precision, accuracy and units.

If you are keen to see for yourself how we go about securing the maximum marks for the Paper 1 (MCQ Paper), as well as how we impart the higher order thinking skills of application, analysis and evaluation, do attend our lesson

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You can request for H2 Physics tutor here.